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After a cone of the very highest grade I just had an amazing idea: a self erecting space canon that “grows itself” based on long-chain cellulosic molecular slingshots. The slingshot can be an ultra-long polypeptide – basically a genetically modified plant protein – it can be a plant, flax or hemp is likely ideal due to it’s “disordered cooper pair” layout of the electrons in the carbon scaffold. After each cycle of growth is complete, a chain reaction begins and the slingshot “cracks” open but while doing so it pulls a pulley up and builds a weak foundation for the next foundation, also made of cellulose. Give me 20 years and $20 million dollars I reckon I could build a prototype in 5 years capable of building a structure about 1k in height capable of a lateral torsion of say a ~gigapascal this is 10% of the strength required to build a rope it space made of weed. You will be $5 million down before we know if you have wasted your money or not. Most of the angel investment is for the genetic alteration of a hemp strain to get to 1MPa strength, this task is likely actually to be much harder than I imagine but you have to try. It came to me in a vision about panspermia – a theory that I do not especially believe in but sounds quite nifty – where an alien life-form catapults seeds into space using peptide canon.


I’d like to use a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) to study cannabinoids below.

THC – Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol

THCA – Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid

THCV – Tetrahydrocannabivarin

CBD – Cannabidiol

CBN – Cannabinol

CBG – Cannabigerol

CBC – Cannabichromene


Kuhn.fig1-colorI’ve finally discovered what is the problem with modern medicine! It does’t study itself properly.

Based on an article by Cheryl Hoard

On The German Commission E Monographs

In 1978 the German government established a committee, called Commission E, comprised of physicians, pharmacologists, toxicologists, representatives of the pharmaceutical industry and lay persons. Phytomedicines, simply called herbal remedies, are commonly used and very popular in Germany. The German government saw the need to create a process to affirm their safety and effectiveness. The Commission E evaluated data obtained from clinical trials, field studies, collections of single cases, scientific literature including facts published in the standard reference works and expertise of medical associations. Their evaluations resulted in the establishment of “reasonable certainty” of the safety and effectiveness of the herb reviewed.

German71B7GA9444LIn the USA the FDA requires “absolute certainty” for all drugs. Some procedures in use today, like angioplasty and bypass surgery are not supported by evidence and were used long before proper clinical trials were done. Often conventional medicine uses methods more productive of harm – so it must be held to stricter standards. The FDA classifies herbs as untested dietary supplements in which no direct claims can be made for their use for certain conditions. The American public is left on its own to determine what is safe and effective. Many herb leaders who were involved in the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels (CDSL) 1997 report to President Clinton presented documentation that herbs were successfully regulated as medicines in leading European nations, particularly Germany. In the words of Dr. Varro Tyler, “The German experience has definitely shown that reasonable certainty of safety and efficacy is adequate for long-used remedies.” Dr. Tyler, Dean and Distinguished Professor of Pharmacognosy Emeritus School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, was one of the first American authors to report on scientific herbal information. His books are now widely read by the American public and were some of the first herb books currently used by doctors in the USA.

There are 380 monographs presented in the American Botanical Council’s The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. This material has been translated into English. The monographs include listings of approved herbs, unapproved herbs, uses and indications, contraindications, side effects, interactions of herbs with conventional drugs, duration of administration and more.

The German market is the largest with 10 percent of pharmaceutical sales being natural remedies. The French market is the second largest with both countries experiencing positive attitudes towards herbal medicine by the medical profession, government and pharmacies. In Germany a large proportion of herbs are sold on prescription.

Sales through health food stores are predominant compared to other outlets like supermarkets and drug discount stores. Although in the more developed markets of France and Germany, most herbal sales are through pharmacies. New legislation in France actually restricts the sale of licensed herbal products to pharmacies. Generally though, European countries allow herbal remedies to be sold only in places that provide some kind of advisory service to consumers.

Some countries like Germany and France have created a system of monographs that establish a plant’s safety and efficacy. Manufacturers only have to provide proof of a product’s quality. Products containing herbs not covered by existing monographs require clinical and toxicological support as vigorous as drug approval here in the USA. Interestingly, the UK is not producing any monographs and the British herbal market has been restricted by negative attitudes of the medical profession, government and pharmacies. Their herbal sales equal 2 percent of the UK’s total pharmaceutical market.

Although the English translation is in book form, the monographs were originally intended to be package insert information. The German Commission E Monographs have been described as the most accurate scientific information available in the entire world on the safety and efficacy of herbs.


Based on text from Cheryl’s Herbs

The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Edited by Blumenthal, Busse, Goldberg, Gruenwald, Hall, Klein, Riggins & Rister. Published by The American Botanical Council 1998 in cooperation with Integrative Medicine Communications. Austin, Texas

Article by Susan Goodman. Modern Maturity (AARP). January-February 2000.

Cellulosic GrapheneWhile researching and trying to figure out why hemp graphene is such a good conductor on a par with carbon nanotubes, I found this gem of an article which nicely explains superconductivity. I was looking for some research about cannabis hemp graphene and it’s “dis-ordered distribution of cooper pairs” or something… these are the pairs of electrons that need to move together if you want to maintain superconductivity! Regular superconductors loose it due to heat disturbing the movement of these pairs of electrons. It seems that hemp graphene mite be able to be processed to perform like graphene.


So what about hemp graphene? Does it super-conduct?

Yes. In this interesting article we get:

As hemp makes a comeback in the U.S. after a decades-long ban on its cultivation, scientists are reporting that fibers from the plant can pack as much energy and power as graphene, long-touted as the model material for supercapacitors. They’re presenting their research, which a Canadian start-up company is working on scaling up, at the 248th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world’s largest scientific society.

“Our device’s electrochemical performance is on par with or better than graphene-based devices,”

These nice three images come courtesy of this Truth On Pot article about hemp graphene

Nano Hemp Graphenenano-hemp-graphene-2-07-31nano-hemp-graphene-07-31

“Hemp bast is a nanocomposite made up of layers of lignin, hemicellulose, and crystalline cellulose. If you process it the right way, it separates into nanosheets similar to graphene.”

This would make a much cheaper source of high-carbon tubing than pure-carbon ones: From one source I picked totally at random -  this tubing is $258 per gram or these nice looking Silver Nanowires 30nm OD at $200-$500/gram.


This means that if two electrons forming a Cooper pair go from the superconductor to the normal metal, they have to stay in the same quantum state while they go through the normal metal in order to be able to form a superconducting pair in the second superconductor. Hence, the paired electrons have to be subjected to the same interactions while going through the “normal” metal, and their state must not change because of thermal agitation or an interaction with a magnetic atom that would affect the two electrons of the pair differently.


 Carbon Nanotubes Up Real Close and Personal
Perhaps there is only one atom in this Quantronic image? Here they make a supercurrent flow through only one atom of aluminium
One Atom Bridge of Aluminium
In this figure from this crazy technical paper, but I just love how it includes a “Cooper Pairs” reference (it’s the boxed region).
Electron Microscope view of a "GAI"

See Also on Legalise NZ:

The Amazing Microbial Structure of Hemp and Flax

An open-source software project to improve democracy: the Awaken Direct Democracy web and mobile app (concept-only/wireframe) will let’s citizens vote on elections, acts and bills; see forecasts and graphs of others voting pattersn; and then later change vote up to 6 times, providing a unique +/- signal back to parliament in real-time, hopefully as a good way to reverse out old un-popular legislation!

Web server instance built from NodeJS using Ionic Creator

Project Homepage: Awaken.Guru

Buckminster Fuller“You never change things by fighting the existing reality.
To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.”
― R. Buckminster Fuller

Using data mining techniques, I’ve produced this handy guide to medical cannabis for professionals curious about it’s application. 419 studies were, 199 of which were fully controlled studies.

Medical Cannabis Cheat Sheet

Medical Cannabis Cheat Sheet

PDF:  1 page guide  Medical Cannabis Cheat Sheet also I prefer this  version with artistic edge made from the studies text.

XLSX: source data for cheat sheet 419 studies data mining pivot table.xlsx

419 clinical studies of cannabis have taken place. Burn in hell Peter Dunne you are scum of the earth.

Clinical Studies and Case Reports

On this site you will find clinical studies with cannabis or single cannabinoids in different diseases and case reports on the use of cannabis by patients.


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Diagnosis Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s)
Show Dependency/withdrawal Safety of oral dronabinol during opioid withdrawal in humans Jicha CJ, Lofwall MR, Nuzzo PA, Babalonis S, Elayi SC, Walsh SL. 2015 Delta-9-THC Controlled study 40 mg of THC caused increased heart rate and anxiety, which made dose-reduction necessary
Show Epilepsy Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy Press CA, Knupp KG, Chapman KE 2015 Cannabis Open study About one third of children suffering from different forms of epilepsy experienced a more than 50 % reduction in seizures by the use of oral cannabis extracts.
Show Pain Efficacy of Inhaled Cannabis on Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Wallace MS, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Gouaux B, Atkinson JH 2015 Cannabis Controlled study Inhaled cannabis demonstrated a dose dependent reduction in peripheral treatment-refractory neuropathic pain.
Show Profiles of medicinal cannabis patients attending compassion centers in rhode island. Zaller N, Topletz A, Frater S, Yates G, Lally M. 2015 Cannabis Survey Most participants report that medicinal cannabis improves their pain symptomology.
Show Neural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers. Tudge L, Williams C, Cowen PJ, McCabe C 2015 Other cannabinoids Controlled study The natural cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) altered the nerve response to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in a way that it “suggests therapeutic activity in obesity.
Show Posttraumatic stress disorder The efficacy of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in the treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares: A preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study. Jetly R, Heber A, Fraser G, Boisvert D. 2015 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone reduced nightmares.
Show Smoking and Diabetes Mellitus: Results from Meta-analysis with Eight Independent Replication Samples Alshaarawy O, Anthony JC. 2015 Cannabis Survey Cannabis use was associated with a 30% reduction of diabetes risk
Show Pain Experience of adjunctive cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: Findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study. Degenhardt L, Lintzeris N, Campbell G, Bruno R, Cohen M, Farrell M, Hall WD. 2015 Cannabis Survey Pain patients, who receive opioids, experience better pain relief if they also take cannabis.
Show HIV/AIDS High-intensity cannabis use associated with lower plasma human immunodeficiency virus-1 RNA viral load among recently infected people who use injection drugs. Milloy MJ, Marshall B, Kerr T, Richardson L, Hogg R, Guillemi S, Montaner JS, Wood E. 2015 Cannabis Open study At least daily cannabis use was associated with significant lower plasma HIV viral loads.
Show Cancer Patterns of Use of Medical Cannabis Among Israeli Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience. Waissengrin B, Urban D, Leshem Y, Garty M, Wolf I. 2015 Cannabis Open study Cannabis use “is perceived as highly effective” by some patients with advanced cancer.
Show Cancer;Nausea/vomiting Dronabinol Treatment of Refractory Nausea and Vomiting Related to Peritoneal Carcinomatosis. Hernandez SL, Sheyner I, Stover KT, Stewart JT. 2015 Delta-9-THC Open study THC may be very effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in end-stage cancer.
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Nausea/vomiting;Pain Improving Quality of Life With Nabilone During Radiotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial Côté M, Trudel M, Wang C, Fortin A. 2015 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone did not reduce pain and nausea in patients treated for head and neck cancer.
Show Pain Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability de Vries M, van Rijckevorsel DC, Vissers KC, Wilder-Smith OH, van Goor H(; Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group 2015 Delta-9-THC Controlled study No effect of a single low dose of THC on abdominal pain resulting from chronic pancreatitis in clinical study.
Show Dependency/withdrawal;Pain The prescription of medical cannabis by a transitional pain service to wean a patient with complex pain from opioid use following liver transplantation: a case report. Meng H, Hanlon JG, Katznelson R, Ghanekar A, McGilvray I, Clarke H. 2015 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report The use of cannabis reduced opioid consumption
Show Alzheimer’s disease Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial. van den Elsen GA, Ahmed AI, Verkes RJ, Kramers C, Feuth T, Rosenberg PB, van der Marck MA, Olde Rikkert MG. 2015 Delta-9-THC Controlled study No reduction in NPS by low-dose THC (3×1.5mg), though it is well-tolerated
Show Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users. Hindocha C, Freeman TP, Schafer G, Gardener C, Das RK, Morgan CJ, Curran HV. 2015 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study Improvement of recognition of emotional facial affect by CBD and attenuation of the impairment induced by THC
Show The effect of five day dosing with THCV on THC-induced cognitive, psychological and physiological effects in healthy male human volunteers: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot trial. Englund A, Atakan Z, Kralj A, Tunstall N, Murray R, Morrison P. 2015 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Inhibition of some of the well-known effects of THC by THCV and potentiation of other effects
Show Pain The Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, Safety, and Ease of Use of a Novel Portable Metered-Dose Cannabis Inhaler in Patients With Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Phase 1a Study Eisenberg E, Ogintz M, Almog S 2014 Cannabis Open study A significant reduction in pain intensity was achieved after cannabis inhalation with a vaporizer.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: a randomized clinical trial Allsop DJ, Copeland J, Lintzeris N, Dunlop AJ, Montebello M, Sadler C, Rivas GR, Holland RM, Muhleisen P, Norberg MM, Booth J, McGregor IS 2014 Cannabis Controlled study Sativex had no relevant long-term effect on cannabis dependence
Show Pain A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment Serpell M, Ratcliffe S, Hovorka J, Schofield M, Taylor L, Lauder H, Ehler E 2014 Cannabis Controlled study Significant improvements in pain, sleep quality and subjective evaluations of patients.
Show Parkinson’s disease Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial Chagas MH, Zuardi AW, Tumas V, Pena-Pereira MA, Sobreira ET, Bergamaschi MM, dos Santos AC, Teixeira AL, Hallak JE, Crippa JA 2014 Cannabidiol Controlled study Significant improvement in well-being. No effects on motor functioning or neuroprotection.
Show Endocannabinoids control platelet activation and limit aggregate formation under flow. De Angelis V, Koekman AC, Weeterings C, Roest M, de Groot PG, Herczenik E, Maas C. 2014 Other cannabinoids Open study Activation of cannabinoid receptors by cannabis use reduces platelet activation and blood clotting.
Show Traumatic brain injury Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Nguyen BM, Kim D, Bricker S, Bongard F, Neville A, Putnam B, Smith J, Plurad D. 2014 Cannabis Open study A positive THC screen is associated with decreased mortality in adult patients sustaining TBI [traumatic brain injury].
Show Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy older subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Ahmed AI, van den Elsen GA, Colbers A, van der Marck MA, Burger DM, Feuth TB, Rikkert MG, Kramers C. 2014 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC appeared to be safe and well tolerated by healthy older individuals.
Show Nausea/vomiting Cannabis for intractable nausea after bilateral cerebellar stroke. Adhiyaman V, Arshad S. 2014 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report A woman with intractable nausea after cerebellar stroke responded well to a treatment with THC.
Show Pain;Posttraumatic stress disorder;Sleep disorder Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid in a Correctional Population for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Related Insomnia and Nightmares, Chronic Pain, Harm Reduction, and Other Indications: A Retrospective Evaluation. Cameron C, Watson D, Robinson J. 2014 Nabilone Open study Nabilone caused significant improvements in insomnia, nightmares, chronic pain and other symptoms in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Show Multiple sclerosis Long-term effectiveness and safety of nabiximols (tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol oromucosal spray) in clinical practice. Flachenecker P, Henze T, Zettl UK. 2014 Cannabis Open study Researchers found that “real-life data confirm the long-term effectiveness and tolerability of nabiximols [Sativex] for the treatment of resistant MSS [multiple sclerosis spasticity].
Show Posttraumatic stress disorder Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Roitman P, Mechoulam R, Cooper-Kazaz R, Shalev A. 2014 Delta-9-THC Open study THC caused significant improvements in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Show Parkinson’s disease Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study. Lotan I, Treves TA, Roditi Y, Djaldetti R. 2014 Cannabis Open study Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant, also sleep and pain improvement after treatment with cannabis.
Show Multiple sclerosis Nabiximols (THC/CBD oromucosal spray, Sativex®) in clinical practice–results of a multicenter, non-interventional study (MOVE 2) in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity. Flachenecker P, Henze T, Zettl UK. 2014 Cannabis Open study The cannabis extract Sativex provided relief in 74.6% of participants.
Show Posttraumatic stress disorder Using cannabis to help you sleep: heightened frequency of medical cannabis use among those with PTSD. Bonn-Miller MO, Babson KA, Vandrey R. 2014 Cannabis Survey Patients with high PTSD scores were more likely to use cannabis to improve sleep, and for coping reasons more generally.
Show Sleep disorder Impact of Dronabinol on Quantitative Electroencephalogram (qEEG) Measures of Sleep in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Farabi SS, Prasad B, Quinn L, Carley DW. 2014 Delta-9-THC Open study THC treatment yielded a shift in EEG (electroencephalogram) power toward delta and theta frequencies and a strengthening of normal rhythms in the sleep.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity. Koehler J, Feneberg W, Meier M, Pöllmann W. 2014 Cannabis Open study The mean spasticity decreased by 57%.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis. Lorente Fernández L, Monte Boquet E, Pérez-Miralles F, Gil Gómez I, Escutia Roig M, Boscá Blasco I, Poveda Andrés JL, Casanova-Estruch B. 2014 Cannabis Open study The cannabis extract was effective in 80% of patients.
Show Alzheimer’s disease Dronabinol for the treatment of agitation and aggressive behavior in acutely hospitalized severely demented patients with noncognitive behavioral symptoms. Woodward MR, Harper DG, Stolyar A, Forester BP, Ellison JM. 2014 Delta-9-THC Open study A treatment with oral THC was associated with significant decreases in agitation, as well as improvements in sleep duration and appetite.
Show Epilepsy Cannabis and other illicit drug use in epilepsy patients. Hamerle M, Ghaeni L, Kowski A, Weissinger F, Holtkamp M. 2014 Cannabis Survey The use of cannabis did not affect disease severity in epilepsy.
Show Pain A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial with extension using an oral mucosal cannabinoid extract for treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG. 2014 Cannabis Controlled study Reduction in pain intensity
Show Pain The subjective psychoactive effects of oral dronabinol studied in a randomized, controlled crossover clinical trial for pain. Issa MA, Narang S, Jamison RN, Michna E, Edwards RR, Penetar DM, Wasan AD. 2014 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Oral THC had similar psychoactive effects to smoked marijuana
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity Effect of dronabinol on progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (CUPID): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Zajicek J, Ball S, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Miller D, Cano MG, McManus D, Mallik S, Hobart J; on behalf of the CUPID investigator group. 2013 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC, which was given for 36 months, had no effect on progression compared to placebo
Show Dependency/withdrawal Impact of Cannabis Use during Stabilization on Methadone Maintenance Treatment. Scavone JL, Sterling RC, Weinstein SP, Van Bockstaele EJ. 2013 Cannabis Open study Objective ratings of opiate withdrawal decreased in patients using cannabis during stabilization
Show Cancer chemotherapy;Pain A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Trial With Extension Using an Oral Mucosal Cannabinoid Extract for Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain. Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG. 2013 Cannabis Controlled study Five patients tended to respond to a treatment with cannabis
Show Anxiety;Posttraumatic stress disorder Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Das RK, Kamboj SK, Ramadas M, Yogan K, Gupta V, Redman E, Curran HV, Morgan CJ 2013 Cannabidiol Controlled study Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of fear extinction in humans.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report. Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Queiroz RH, Bergamaschi M, Chagas MH, Zuardi AW. 2013 Cannabidiol Uncontrolled case report They were no major withdrawal symptoms.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs: A dispensary-based survey of substitution effect in Canadian medical cannabis patients. Lucas P, Reiman A, Earleywine M, McGowan S, Oleson M, Coward M, Thomas B. 2013 Cannabis Survey Many patients substitute cannabis for alcohol, illegal and medicinal drugs
Show Psychosis/schizophrenia A controlled family study of cannabis users with and without psychosis. Proal AC, Fleming J, Galvez-Buccollini JA, Delisi LE. 2013 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis does not cause psychosis by itself
Show Pain The Subjective Psychoactive Effects of Oral Dronabinol Studied in a Randomized, Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial For Pain. Issa MA, Narang S, Jamison RN, Michna E, Edwards RR, Penetar DM, Wasan AD. 2013 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study In pain patients, oral dronabinol has similar psychoactive effects to smoking cannabis.
Show Cancer;Pain An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics Johnson JR, Lossignol D, Burnell-Nugent M, Fallon MT 2013 Cannabis Open study The cannabis extract Sativex was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of a loss of effect for pain relief.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis. Langford RM, Mares J, Novotna A, Vachova M, Novakova I, Notcutt W, Ratcliffe S 2013 Cannabis Controlled study No significant difference between placebo and Sativex in Phase A; Phase B demonstrated an analgesic effect.
Show Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation;Pain Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM 2013 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis produced significant clinical benefits in 10 of 11 patients with active Crohn’s disease.
Show Pain Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Deutsch R, Gouaux B, Sakai S, Donaghe H 2013 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis reduced pain. No difference in efficacy between the two doses.
Show Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Ravikoff Allegretti J, Courtwright A, Lucci M, Korzenik JR, Levine J. 2013 Cannabis Survey Patients find cannabis very helpful for symptom control.
Show Sleep disorder Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers. Gorelick DA, Goodwin RS, Schwilke E, Schroeder JR, Schwope DM, Kelly DL, Ortemann-Renon C, Bonnet D, Huestis MA. 2013 Delta-9-THC Open study Higher THC concentrations were significantly associated with less difficulty falling asleep and more daytime sleep the following day.
Show Cancer The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: prospective, observational study evaluating the treatment in cancer patients on supportive or palliative care. Bar-Sela G, Vorobeichik M, Drawsheh S, Omer A, Goldberg V, Muller E. 2013 Cannabis Open study In an open clinical study with cancer patients all symptoms improved significantly.
Show HIV/AIDS Marijuana smoking does not accelerate progression of liver disease in HIV-hepatitis C coinfection: a longitudinal cohort analysis. Brunet L, Moodie EE, Rollet K, Cooper C, Walmsley S, Potter M, Klein MB; Canadian Co-infection Cohort Investigators. 2013 Cannabis Open study The use of cannabis did not accelerate progression to significant liver fibrosis.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Impact of cannabis use during stabilization on methadone maintenance treatment. Scavone JL, Sterling RC, Weinstein SP, Van Bockstaele EJ. 2013 Cannabis Open study Symptoms of opiate withdrawal decrease in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, who use cannabis.
Show Multiple sclerosis Treatment failure of intrathecal baclofen and supra-additive effect of nabiximols in multiple sclerosis-related spasticity: a case report. Stroet A, Trampe N, Chan A. 2013 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report A combination of baclofen injections into the cerebrospinal fluid and very low doses of the cannabis extract Sativex was highly effective.
Show Pain Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers. Cooper ZD, Comer SD, Haney M. 2013 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC (dronabinol) and smoked cannabis (marijuana) caused similar effects on pain sensitivity and pain tolerance.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Nabilone decreases marijuana withdrawal and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse. Haney M, Cooper ZD, Bedi G, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW. 2013 Nabilone Open study The use of nabilone reduced withdrawal symptoms.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity A new multiple sclerosis spasticity treatment option: effect in everyday clinical practice and cost-effectiveness in Germany. Flachenecker P. 2013 Cannabis Open study The cannabis extract sativex is effective in a large number of patients and well-tolerated in the long-term.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity Endocannabinoid system modulator use in everyday clinical practice in the UK and Spain. García-Merino A. 2013 Cannabis Open study Sativex appears to be a well-tolerated and useful add-on therapy in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.
Show Spasticity Proof of concept trial of dronabinol in obstructive sleep apnea. Prasad B, Radulovacki MG, Carley DW. 2013 Delta-9-THC Open study THC significantly improved this condition.
Show Headache/migraine Use of cannabis among 139 cluster headache sufferers. Leroux E, Taifas I, Valade D, Donnet A, Chagnon M, Ducros A. 2013 Cannabis Survey Less than one third of self-reported users mention a relief of their attacks following inhalation.
Show Dependency/withdrawal The dose effects of short-term dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance in daily cannabis users. Vandrey R, Stitzer ML, Mintzer MZ, Huestis MA, Murray JA, Lee D. 2013 Delta-9-THC Open study THC dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal.
Show Psychosis/schizophrenia Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth CW, Hoyer C, Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Koethe D. 2012 Cannabidiol Controlled study CBD was as effective as amisulpride, a standard antipsychotic
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Spasticity Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Corey-Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte TD, Bentley H, Gouaux B. 2012 Cannabis Controlled study Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity and pain.
Show Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers. Martín-Santos R, Crippa JA, Batalla A, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Borgwardt S, Allen P, Seal M, Langohr K, Farré M, Zuardi AW, McGuire P. 2012 Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study CBD does not cause significant side effects
Show Pain Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Chronic Pain Caused by Different Etiopathogenesis. Gatti A, Lazzari M, Gianfelice V, Di Paolo A, Sabato E, Sabato AF. 2012 Other cannabinoids Open study Significant pain relief with palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)
Show Posttraumatic stress disorder Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence. Passie T, Emrich HM, Karst M, Brandt SD, Halpern JH. 2012 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Significant improvement in one patient with PSD with cannabis
Show Pain An efficient randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial with the irreversible fatty acid amide hydrolase-1 inhibitor PF-04457845, which modulates endocannabinoids but fails to induce effective analgesia in patients with pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee. Huggins JP, Smart TS, Langman S, Taylor L, Young T. 2012 Other cannabinoids Controlled study A FAAH inhibitor was not more effective than a placebo.
Show Pain Herbal cannabis use in patients labeled as fibromyalgia is associated with negative psychosocial parameters. Ste-Marie PA, Fitzcharles MA, Gamsa A, Ware MA, Shir Y. 2012 Cannabis Survey Many patients with fibromyalgia use cannabis products.
Show Pain;Spasticity Cannabis derivatives therapy for a seronegative stiff-person syndrome: a case report. Vicente-Valor MI, Garcia-Llopis P, Mejia Andujar L, Antonino de la Camara G, García Del Busto N, Lopez Tinoco M, Quintana Vergara B, Peiro Vilaplana C, Dominguez Moran JA, Sánchez Alcaraz A. 2012 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report The cannabis extract was effective in a patient with stiff person syndrome.
Show Traumatic brain injury Early Survival of Comatose Patients after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury with the Dual Cannabinoid CB1/CB2 Receptor Agonist KN38-7271: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial. Firsching R, Piek J, Skalej M, Rohde V, Schmidt U, Striggow F; the KN38-7271 Study Group. 2012 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Survival rates within 1 month of the injury were significantly better.
Show Anxiety Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images. Ballard ME, Bedi G, de Wit H. 2012 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC renders fearful faces less fearful
Show Cancer;Pain Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial. Portenoy RK, Ganae-Motan ED, Allende S, Yanagihara R, Shaiova L, Weinstein S, McQuade R, Wright S, Fallon MT. 2012 Cannabis Controlled study Additional pain reduction following the two lower doses.
Show Posttraumatic stress disorder Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by Cannabis resin: A review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence. Passie T, Emrich HM, Karst M, Brandt SD, Halpern JH. 2012 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis reduced course and intensity of symptoms.
Show Anxiety;Posttraumatic stress disorder Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans. Rabinak CA, Angstadt M, Sripada CS, Abelson JL, Liberzon I, Milad MR, Phan KL. 2012 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC prevented the recovery of fear in this experiment of extinction learning.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Spasticity A questionnaire survey of patients and carers of patients prescribed Sativex as an unlicensed medicine. Notcutt WG. 2012 Cannabis Survey Most respondents experienced improvements across a range of symptoms.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Spasticity Multiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial. Zajicek JP, Hobart JC, Slade A, Barnes D, Mattison PG; on behalf of the MUSEC Research Group. 2012 Cannabis Controlled study Significant improvement by the cannabis extract Cannador of spasticity and pain.
Show Pain Intractable neuropathic pain due to ulnar nerve entrapment treated with cannabis and ketamine 10%. Hesselink JM, Kopsky DJ. 2012 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Significant pain improvement with cannabis and ketamine.
Show Pain Lack of effect of central nervous system-active doses of nabilone on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia. Kalliomäki J, Philipp A, Baxendale J, Annas P, Karlsten R, Segerdahl M. 2012 Nabilone Controlled study The cannabinoid had no significant effect on acute experimental pain.
Show Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study Lahat A, Lang A, Ben-Horin S 2012 Cannabis Open study Improvement in general health perception, social functioning, ability to work, physical pain and depression; weight gain; average rise in BMI; average Harvey-Bradshaw index was reduced
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I, Ellis RJ 2012 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis administration was associated with significant increases in plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, and decreases in PYY, but did not significantly influence insulin levels
Show Diarrhoea;Gastrointestinal disorder Randomized pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic trial of dronabinol effects on colon transit in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea Wong BS, Camilleri M, Eckert D, Carlson P, Ryks M, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR 2012 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC had no significant effects on gut transit.
Show Epilepsy Seizure exacerbation in two patients with focal epilepsy following marijuana cessation. Hegde M, Santos-Sanchez C, Hess CP, Kabir AA, Garcia PA. 2012 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Patients with epilepsy were able to control their seizures by the use of cannabis.
Show Pain A Randomized, Controlled Study to Investigate the Analgesic Efficacy of Single Doses of the Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Agonist GW842166, Ibuprofen or Placebo in Patients With Acute Pain Following Third Molar Tooth Extraction. Ostenfeld T, Price J, Albanese M, Bullman J, Guillard F, Meyer I, Leeson R, Costantin C, Ziviani L, Nocini PF, Milleri S. 2011 Other cannabinoids Controlled study No superior analgetic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid GW842166 over placebo.
Show Obsessive compulsive disorder Dronabinol, a cannabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: a pilot study. Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR, Kim SW. 2011 Delta-9-THC Open study Statistically significant reduction in symptom severity.
Show Increased Blood Pressure Following Abrupt Cessation of Daily Cannabis Use. Vandrey R, Umbricht A, Strain EC. 2011 Cannabis;Nabilone Survey In 6 of 13 subjects blood pressure increased significantly after cessation of cannabis use.
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Nausea/vomiting;Pain;Spasticity [Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern. Gottschling S. 2011 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Reduced pain, spasticity and improved appetite and nausea
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M, Macdonald N, Baracos VE, Wismer WV. 2011 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC improved taste and appetite
Show Subjective and Physiological Effects After Controlled Sativex and Oral THC Administration. Karschner EL, Darwin WD, McMahon RP, Liu F, Wright S, Goodwin RS, Huestis MA. 2011 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study Oral THC and the cannabis extract Sativex produced similar effects
Show Anxiety Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schröder N, Nardi AE, Martín-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. 2011 Cannabidiol Controlled study Cannabidiol significamtly reduced anxiety.
Show Separate and combined effects of the cannabinoid agonists nabilone and Δ(9)-THC in humans discriminating Δ(9)-THC. Lile JA, Kelly TH, Hays LR. 2011 Delta-9-THC;Nabilone Controlled study THC caused similar effects as nabilone
Show Anxiety Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simões MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE. 2011 Cannabidiol Controlled study CBD reduces anxiety in patients with generalized social anxiety disorder.
Show The cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect visceral sensitivity to rectal distension in healthy volunteers and IBS patients. Klooker TK, Leliefeld KE, Van Den Wijngaard RM, Boeckxstaens GE. 2011 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC did not modify visceral perception to rectal distension.
Show Pain Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life. Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M. 2011 Cannabis Open study The use of cannabis was associated with reduction of some fibromyalgia symptoms.
Show Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety. Pickering EE, Semple SJ, Nazir MS, Murphy K, Snow TM, Cummin AR, Moosavi S, Guz A, Holdcroft A. 2011 Cannabis Controlled study With cannabis participants felt less breathless
Show Cancer Spontaneous regression of septum pellucidum/forniceal pilocytic astrocytomas-possible role of Cannabis inhalation. Foroughi M, Hendson G, Sargent MA, Steinbok P. 2011 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Spontaneous regression of benign brain tumour may have been associated with cannabis use.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex(®) ), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, Novakova I, Vachova M, Zapletalova O, Gasperini C, Pozzilli C, Cefaro L, Comi G, Rossi P, Ambler Z, Stelmasiak Z, Erdmann A, Montalban X, Klimek A, Davies P; the Sativex Spasticity Study Group. 2011 Cannabis Controlled study The cannabis extract significantly reduced spasticity.
Show Tourette’s syndrome Cannabinoids improve driving ability in a Tourette’s patient. Brunnauer A, Segmiller FM, Volkamer T, Laux G, Müller N, Dehning S 2011 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report THC improved driving ability
Show Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H. 2011 Cannabis Survey Cannabis use is frequent in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation
Show Posttraumatic stress disorder Medical cannabis use in post-traumatic stress disorder: a naturalistic observational study. Reznik I. 2011 Cannabis Open study In most cases a significant improvement in quality of life and pain, with some positive changes in severity of posttraumatic stress disorder was observed.
Show The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids: an international survey on methods of intake. Hazekamp A, Grotenhermen F, Abrams D, Russo E, Ware M, Navarrete-Varo R, Brenneisen R, Müller-Vahl K. 2011 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Nabilone Survey Preferred modes of use were smoking of cannabis (62.9 per cent), inhalation of cannabis with a vaporizer (23.6 per cent), oral use of cannabis in baked goods (7.9 per cent), oral use of cannabis as a tea (2.4 per cent), and oral use of dronabinol/Marinol (1.8 per cent).
Show Diarrhoea;Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation Treatment of Crohn’s disease with cannabis: an observational study. Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM. 2011 Cannabis Open study Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly
Show Diarrhoea;Gastrointestinal disorder Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR. 2011 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Dronabinol reduces fasting motility of the colon in IBS patients with diarrhoea
Show HIV/AIDS A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men. Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I, Ellis RJ. 2011 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis modulates the concentration of appetite hormones
Show Inflammation Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study. Lahat A, Lang A, Ben-Horin S. 2011 Cannabis Open study Significant improvement of several symptoms.
Show Pain Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain Abrams DI, Couey P, Shade SB, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL 2011 Cannabis Open study Pain was significantly decreased
Show Dependency/withdrawal Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Levin FR, Mariani JJ, Brooks DJ, Pavlicova M, Cheng W, Nunes EV 2011 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC caused significant improvement in treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms.
Show Cancer Marijuana use is not associated with cervical human papillomavirus natural history or cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative women. D’Souza G, Palefsky JM, Zhong Y, Minkoff H, Massad LS, Anastos K, Levine AM, Moxley M, Xue XN, Burk RD, Strickler HD. 2010 Cannabis Open study Cannabis use is not associated with cervical human papillomavirus natural history or cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative women.
Show Nausea/vomiting Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system. Choukèr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, Hauer D, Feuerecker M, Thieme D, Vogeser M, Thiel M, Schelling G. 2010 Open study Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7) showed lower endocannabinoid levels during parabolic flights.
Show Spasticity Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial. Weber M, Goldman B, Truniger S. 2010 Delta-9-THC Controlled study There were no effects on cramp intensity, number of cramps and fasciculation intensity.
Show Tourette’s syndrome Oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report. Hasan A, Rothenberger A, Münchau A, Wobrock T, Falkai P, Roessner V. 2010 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report THC improved tics allowing parallel stimulant treatment of comorbid ADHD.
Show Appetite loss/weight loss Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis. Morgan CJ, Freeman TP, Schafer GL, Curran HV. 2010 Cannabis Open study Effects depended on the ratio of CBD and THC with high CBD reducing appetite enhancing effects of THC.
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. Pooyania S, Ethans K, Szturm T, Casey A, Perry D. 2010 Nabilone Controlled study There was a significant decrease in spasticity by nabilone.
Show Dystonia Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis. Beckmann Y, Seçil Y, Güngör B, Yiğit T. 2010 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Significant improvement by cannabis and dronabinol.
Show Dramatic improvement of refractory Isaacs’ syndrome after treatment with dronabinol. Meyniel C, Ollivier Y, Hamidou M, Péréon Y, Derkinderen P. 2010 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Dramathic improvement of symptoms (profuse sweating, muscular twitching, weight loss)
Show The relationship between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a methadone maintenance treatment program. Villagonzalo KA, Dodd S, Ng F, Mihaly S, Langbein A, Berk M. 2010 Cannabis Survey Cannabis may be used to self-treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Show Improvement in refractory psychosis with dronabinol: four case reports. Schwarcz G, Karajgi B. 2010 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Significant improvement in four patients
Show Pain An Open-Label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy. Bestard JA, Toth CC. 2010 Nabilone Open study The benefits of nabilone are similar as gabapentin
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Duran M, Pérez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farré M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellà D. 2010 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing nausea and vomiting in patients refractory to other medications
Show Pain Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Rintala DH, Fiess RN, Tan G, Holmes SA, Bruel BM. 2010 Delta-9-THC Controlled study No significant difference between THC and diphenhydramine.
Show Multiple sclerosis Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Kavia RB, De Ridder D, Constantinescu CS, Stott CG, Fowler CJ. 2010 Cannabis Controlled study The cannabis extract had some effect on overactive bladder symptoms.
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: a controlled laboratory study. Bedi G, Foltin RW, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Comer SD, Vosburg SK, Haney M. 2010 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Tolerance developed to the appetite-increasing effects of THC.
Show Pain Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP. 2010 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis improved pain and sleep quality.
Show Cancer;Pain Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. 2010 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study A cannabis extract containing THC and CBD was superior in reducing pain than placebo.
Show Bipolar disorders Opposite relationships between cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, Sundet K, Engh JA, Jónsdóttir H, Simonsen C, Friis S, Opjordsmoen S, Melle I, Andreassen OA. 2010 Cannabis Survey In bipolar disorder subjects, cannabis use was associated with better neurocognitive function, but the opposite was the case for the schizophrenia subjects.
Show Pain Randomised Placebo Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial of Cannabis Based Medicinal Product (Sativex) in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Depression is a Major Confounding Factor. Selvarajah D, Gandhi R, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S. 2010 Cannabis Controlled study No difference between cannabis extract and placebo.
Show Pain The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Ware MA, Fitzcharles MA, Joseph L, Shir Y. 2010 Nabilone Controlled study Improvement of sleep by nabilone.
Show PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders. Cornelius JR, Kirisci L, Reynolds M, Clark DB, Hayes J, Tarter R. 2010 Cannabis Survey People with PTSD have a higher risk for cannabis use
Show Pain Adjuvant topical therapy with a cannabinoid receptor agonist in facial postherpetic neuralgia. Phan NQ, Siepmann D, Gralow I, Ständer S. 2010 Other cannabinoids Open study Five of eight patients experienced a good pain relief
Show Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis Collin C, Ehler E, Waberzinek G, Alsindi Z, Davies P, Powell K, Notcutt W, O’Leary C, Ratcliffe S, Nováková I, Zapletalova O, Piková J, Ambler Z 2010 Cannabis Controlled study Significant reduction in treatment-resistant spasticity.
Show HIV/AIDS;Pain Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH. 2009 Cannabis Controlled study Significant pain relief with cannabis.
Show Treatment of a hyperkinetic movement disorder during pregnancy with dronabinol. Farooq MU, Ducommun E, Goudreau J. 2009 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Improvement of her hyperkinetic movement disorder with no signs of tolerance
Show Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans. Beaumont H, Jensen J, Carlsson A, Ruth M, Lehmann A, Boeckxstaens GE. 2009 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC reduced acid reflux episodes in the first hour after a meal.
Show Multiple sclerosis Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Aragona M, Onesti E, Tomassini V, Conte A, Gupta S, Gilio F, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M. 2009 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis did not impair cognition
Show Nausea/vomiting;HIV/AIDS;Pain;Depression;Anxiety Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy. Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N. 2009 Cannabis Survey Participants rated cannabis as similar effective as other medications for the treatment of their symptoms.
Show Relief oriented use of marijuana by teens. Bottorff JL, Johnson JL, Moffat BM, Mulvogue T. 2009 Cannabis Survey 20 participants said that they used cannabis to treat health problems.
Show Intestinal Lymphatic Transport Enhances the Post-Prandial Oral Bioavailability of a Novel Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist Via Avoidance of First-Pass Metabolism. Trevaskis NL, Shackleford DM, Charman WN, Edwards GA, Gardin A, Appel-Dingemanse S, Kretz O, Galli B, Porter CJ. 2009 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Systemic bioavailability of the cannabinoid CRA13 increased by more than 4-fold if taken together with a fat-rich meal.
Show Headache/migraine Cluster attacks responsive to recreational cannabis and dronabinol. Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM. 2009 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Cannabis and THC aborted attacks of headaches.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence. Raby WN, Carpenter KM, Rothenberg J, Brooks AC, Jiang H, Sullivan M, Bisaga A, Comer S, Nunes EV 2009 Cannabis Open study Better adherence to natrexone therapy with intermittend cannabis use
Show Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia. Schwarcz G, Karajgi B, McCarthy R. 2009 Cannabis Open study Improvement in 4 of 6 participants, of whom 3 showed a significant improvement.
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis. Centonze D, Mori F, Koch G, Buttari F, Codecà C, Rossi S, Cencioni MT, Bari M, Fiore S, Bernardi G, Battistini L, Maccarrone M. 2009 Cannabis Controlled study There was no effect of the cannabis extract on spasticity
Show Spasticity;Pain Reposition of a dislocated shoulder under use of cannabis. Schweizer A, Bircher HP. 2009 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Pain and muscular tone decreased and the shoulder was relocated easily.
Show Dependency/withdrawal White matter integrity in adolescents with histories of marijuana use and binge drinking. Jacobus J, McQueeny T, Bava S, Schweinsburg BC, Frank LR, Yang TT, Tapert SF. 2009 Cannabis Open study Brain damage was less in alcohol users who used also cannabis than in alcohol only users.
Show Dependency/withdrawal Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs Reiman A. 2009 Cannabis Survey 40 % use cannabis to substitute for alcohol, 26 % to substitute for illegal drugs
Show Pain Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State. Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD. 2009 Cannabis Open study 88 % suffer from more than one pain syndrome
Show Cancer A population-based case-control study of marijuana use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Liang C, McClean MD, Marsit C, Christensen B, Peters E, Nelson HH, Kelsey KT. 2009 Cannabis Survey Subjects who used cannabis had a reduced cancer risk.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Conte A, Bettolo CM, Onesti E, Frasca V, Iacovelli E, Gilio F, Giacomelli E, Gabriele M, Aragona M, Tomassini V, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M. 2009 Cannabis Controlled study The study provides objective neurophysiological evidence that cannabinoids modulate the nociceptive system.
Show Nausea/vomiting Use of medical marijuana for treatment of severe intractable nausea after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: case report. Merriman AR, Oliak DA. 2008 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report THC relieved nausea refractory to other medications
Show Pain Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study. Frank B, Serpell MG, Hughes J, Matthews JN, Kapur D. 2008 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone as effective as hydrocodeine in treating neuropatic pain
Show Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus. Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL 2008 Delta-9-THC;Nabilone Open study Improvement of appetite and reduction of nausea and vomiting by nabilone and dronabinol (THC)
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Pain Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring. Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M. 2008 Nabilone Open study Significant improvement of pain
Show Pain A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain. Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Tsodikov A, Millman J, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Fishman S. 2008 Cannabis Controlled study Significant improvement of pain
Show Improvement in refractory obsessive compulsive disorder with dronabinol. Schindler F, Anghelescu I, Regen F, Jockers-Scherubl M. 2008 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Significant symptom improvement
Show Multiple sclerosis;Dystonia Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol. Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ. 2008 Delta-9-THC Open study Significant improvement of symptoms
Show Pain Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers. Kraft B, Frickey NA, Kaufmann RM, Reif M, Frey R, Gustorff B, Kress HG. 2008 Cannabis Controlled study The cannabis extract showed no analgesic effect in acute experimental pain
Show Pain Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of nabilone on experimental heat pain. Redmond WJ, Goffaux P, Potvin S, Marchand S. 2008 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone did not reduce experimental heat pain
Show Alzheimer’s disease The cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone for the treatment of dementia-related agitation. Passmore MJ. 2008 Nabilone Uncontrolled case report Dramatic reduction in the severity of agitation and other behavioural symptoms
Show Dependency/withdrawal Use of dronabinol for cannabis dependence: two case reports and review. Levin FR, Kleber HD. 2008 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report THC reduced withdrawal symptoms in cannabis dependence
Show Pain Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D. 2008 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated
Show Pain Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN. 2008 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC reduced pain
Show Cancer Nabilone for the treatment of paraneoplastic night sweats: a report of four cases. Maida V. 2008 Nabilone Open study Significant improvement of night sweats within 2 days
Show Pain A prospective identification of neuropathic pain in specific chronic polyneuropathy syndromes and response to pharmacological therapy. Toth C, Au S. 2008 Cannabis;Nabilone Open study Similar treatment effects and side effects of cannabinoids compared to other medications
Show Pain Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain. Haroutiunian S, Rosen G, Shouval R, Davidson E. 2008 Delta-9-THC Open study 5 patients reported adequate response to the treatment.
Show Epilepsy Marijuana: an effective antiepileptic treatment in partial epilepsy? A case report and review of the literature. Mortati K, Dworetzky B, Devinsky O. 2007 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Significant improvement of epilepsy with the use of cannabis.
Show Pain Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I. 2007 Cannabis Controlled study A medium dose of cannabis reduced pain, while a high dose increased pain induced by capsaicin
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Oromucosal ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA. 2007 Cannabis Open study No development of tolerance within a period of two years of treatment
Show [Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC] [Article in German] Strohbeck-Kühner P, Skopp G, Mattern R. 2007 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Significant improvement of driving-related performance
Show Pain Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nurmikko TJ, Serpell MG, Hoggart B, Toomey PJ, Morlion BJ, Haines D. 2007 Cannabis Controlled study Significant improvement in pain by cannabis
Show Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study. Abrams DI, Vizoso HP, Shade SB, Jay C, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL 2007 Cannabis Controlled study;Basic research Vaporization of cannabis is a safe and effective mode of delivery of THC
Show Appetite loss/weight loss Anorexia of aging in long term care: is dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant? – a pilot study. Wilson MM, Philpot C, Morley JE 2007 Delta-9-THC Open study A trend towards weight gain
Show Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients Dejesus E, Rodwick BM, Bowers D, Cohen CJ, Pearce D 2007 Delta-9-THC Open study THC improved appetite and weight and reduced nausea
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep. Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW 2007 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC and cannabis caused an increase in caloric intake and weight
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V. 2007 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Dronabinol was as effective as ondansetron in reducing nausea and vomiting. Combination therapy was not more effective.
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S, for the Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group 2007 Cannabis Controlled study Significantly reduction in spasticity
Show HIV/AIDS;Pain Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL. 2007 Cannabis Controlled study Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.
Show Glaucoma Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans. Plange N, Arend KO, Kaup M, Doehmen B, Adams H, Hendricks S, Cordes A, Huth J, Sponsel WE, Remky A. 2007 Delta-9-THC Open study THC reduced intraoculat pressure and improved blood circulation in the retina.
Show Pain Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethansand Daryl K. 2007 Nabilone Controlled study Significant reduction of pain and improvement of quality of life with nabilone
Show Pain Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN 2007 Delta-9-THC Controlled study;Open study THC had an additional effect on pain relief
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury;Pain Sativex® in the Treatment of Central Neuropathic Pain due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomised Controlled Study Berman J & the Sativex Spinal Cord Injury Study Group, Bosworth T2 Guy G & Stott C. 2007 Cannabis Controlled study primary outcome mean NRS 11 poitn pain scale – nod difference – BPI secondary ourcome benefit – significant at p<0.032
Show Effects of a cannabinoid receptor agonist on colonic motor and sensory functions in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Esfandyari T, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Burton D, Baxter K, Zinsmeister AR. 2007 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC relaxes the colon and reduces postprandial colonic motility
Show Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel. Engels FK, de Jong FA, Sparreboom A, Mathot RA, Loos WJ, Kitzen JJ, de Bruijn P, Verweij J, Mathijssen RH. 2007 Cannabis Open study Cannabis did not influence the pharmacokinetics of the two anti-cancer drugs
Show Bipolar disorders The effect of extreme marijuana use on the long-term course of bipolar I illness: a single case study. El-Mallakh RS, Brown C. 2007 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis decreased the number of depressed days and increased the number of hypomanic days.
Show Multiple sclerosis Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray. Scully C. 2007 Cannabis Open study The spray caused reversible damage to the mucosa
Show Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants. O’Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. 2007 Cannabis Survey
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury. Hagenbach U, Luz S, Ghafoor N, Berger JM, Grotenhermen F, Brenneisen R, Mader M. 2006 Delta-9-THC Open study Significant improvement of spasticity with THC
Show Multiple sclerosis Randomised controlled study of cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity de Ridder D, Constantinescu CS,Fowler C, Kavia R, Sarantis N. 2006 Cannabis Controlled study A significant reduction in the number of voids per day and during the night.
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis A randomised controlled study of Sativex® in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis Collin C, Ambler Z, Kent R, McCalla R. 2006 Cannabis Controlled study Spasticity of patients who received cannabis and complied with the study protocol was significantly reduced compared to placebo.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Pain;Depression;Anxiety The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients Maida V. 2006 Nabilone Open study Nabilone treatment improved pain, nausea, appetite and several other symptoms
Show Pain Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine. Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M. 2006 Delta-9-THC Controlled study There was a synergistic effect between THC and morphine on the affective component of pain but not on the sensory component
Show Pain [(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and the opioid receptor agonist piritramide do not act synergistically in postoperative pain.] [Article in German] Seeling W, Kneer L, Buchele B, Gschwend JE, Maier L, Nett C, Simmet T, Steffen P, Schneider M, Rockemann M. 2006 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Application of THC reduced the need of an opioid to treat postoperative pain but the difference to placebo was not significant
Show Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy [Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases.] [Article in German] Zutt M, Hanssle H, Emmert S, Neumann C, Kretschmer L. 2006 Delta-9-THC Open study A significant increase in appetite and decrease in nausea in most patients.
Show Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. 2006 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Improvement of signs and symptoms of the disease
Show Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Morais SL, Faria Sanches R, Musty RE, Crippa JA. 2006 Cannabidiol Open study CBD monotherapy was not effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenia
Show Alzheimer’s disease Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for night-time agitation in severe dementia Walther S, Mahlberg R, Eichmann U, Kunz D 2006 Delta-9-THC Open study Reduction in night-time agitation in actigraphy and in the neuropsychiatric inventory NPI
Show Pain A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management. Holdcroft A, Maze M, Dore C, Tebbs S, Thompson S. 2006 Cannabis Controlled study The optimal dose was 10 mg Cannador, effectively reducing postoperative pain without serious side effects.
Show Multiple sclerosis The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J. 2006 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Cannabis and dronabinol caused a significant reduction in incontinence
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury [Respiratory failure due to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in a tetraplegic patient.]. [Article in German] Neuburger M, Schley M, Schmelz M, Schuepfer G, Konrad C. 2006 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Dronabinol reduced spasticity but worsened respiration
Show Cancer A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Guzman M, Duarte MJ, Blazquez C, Ravina J, Rosa MC, Galve-Roperh I, Sanchez C, Velasco G, Gonzalez-Feria L. 2006 Delta-9-THC Open study THC was well tolerated in this pilot study of intrakranial cannabinoid administration
Show Pain Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Schley M, Legler A, Skopp G, Schmelz M, Konrad C, Rukwied R. 2006 Delta-9-THC Open study Five of the nine patients withdrew from the study due to side effects. Four patients experienced significant pain relief
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T. 2006 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study No difference between cannabis, THC and placebo
Show [Topical cannabinoid agonists : An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus.] [Article in German] Stander S, Reinhardt HW, Luger TA. 2006 Other cannabinoids Open study Topical application of a cream with N-palmitoyl ethanolamine had a good antipruritic effect in most patients.
Show Pain [Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain – a randomized controlled trial.] [Article in German] Pinsger M, Schimetta W, Volc D, Hiermann E, Riederer F, Polz W. 2006 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone caused a significant reduction in pain and improvement of quality of life.
Show Pain Effects of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on postoperative pain. Beaulieu P. 2006 Nabilone Controlled study No pain reduction with nabilone.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain : A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Wissel J, Haydn T, Muller J, Brenneis C, Berger T, Poewe W, Schelosky LD. 2006 Nabilone Controlled study Significant reduction of pain
Show Glaucoma Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study. Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ. 2006 Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study Significant reduction of intraocular pressure
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer chemotherapy;Pain Cannabinoids in the management of intractable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain. Sutton IR, Daeninck P. 2006 Nabilone Survey;Uncontrolled case report Significant improvement in one case of intractable neuropathic pain and one case of refractory cinv
Show Pain Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS. 2006 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis produced improvements in pain and sleep
Show Efficacy and safety of dexanabinol in severe traumatic brain injury: results of a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Maas AI, Murray G, Henney H 3rd, Kassem N, Legrand V, Mangelus M, Muizelaar JP, Stocchetti N, Knoller N; Pharmos TBI investigators. 2006 Other cannabinoids Controlled study No effect of dexanabinol
Show Nausea/vomiting Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’. Westfall RE, Janssen PA, Lucas P, Capler R. 2006 Cannabis Survey Cannabis effective against nausea and vomiting
Show Pain Experience with the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in chronic noncancer pain. Berlach DM, Shir Y, Ware MA. 2006 Nabilone Open study 9 patients reported reduced pain intensity
Show Nausea/vomiting Prevention of nausea and vomiting following breast surgery. Layeeque R, Siegel E, Kass R, Henry-Tillman RS, Colvert M, Mancino A, Klimberg VS. 2006 Delta-9-THC Open study Postoperative nausea and vomiting was reduced by prophylactic administration of dronabinol and prochlorperazine
Show Effect of a cannabinoid agonist on gastrointestinal transit and postprandial satiation in healthy human subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Esfandyari T, Camilleri M, Ferber I, Burton D, Baxter K, Zinsmeister AR. 2006 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC retarded gastric emptying
Show Nausea/vomiting Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C. Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y. 2006 Cannabis Open study Participants who used cannabis maintained adherence to treatment more offen
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Wade DT, Makela PM, House H, Bateman C, Robson P. 2006 Cannabis Open study Long-term use of cannabis maintains its therapeutic effects
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Chong MS, Wolff K, Wise K, Tanton C, Winstock A, Silber E. 2006 Cannabis Survey A subgroup of patients with severe disabilitiy appears to derive some benefit
Show Pain Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial. Ware MA, Ducruet T, Robinson AR. 2006 Cannabis Controlled study Medical cannabis users can appreciate differences in herbal cannabis products
Show Dependency/withdrawal Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome. Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR. 2006 Cannabis Open study Moderate cannabis use had a positive effect of retention rates and abstinence from cocaine
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. Zajicek JP, Sanders HP, Wright DE, Vickery PJ, Ingram WM, Reilly SM, Nunn AJ, Teare LJ, Fox PJ, Thompson AJ. 2005 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Spasticity in the Ashworth scale was significantly reduced by an average of 1.82 in the THC group; no significant reduction in the cannabis group
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis Cannabis-based medicinal extract (Sativex) produced significant improvements in a subjective measure of spasticity which were maintained on long-term treatment with no evidence of tolerance. Robson P, Wade D, Makela P, House H, Bateman C 2005 Cannabis Controlled study Beneficial effects of cannabis on spasticity in MS seem to be maintained over long-term treatment, with no evidence of tolerance.
Show HIV/AIDS;Pain Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Abrams DI, Jay CA, Vizoso H, Shade SB, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham M, Petersen K 2005 Cannabis Controlled study Smoked cannabis is effective in reducing HIV-related neuropathic pain
Show Epilepsy Treatment with CBD in oily solution of drug-resistant paediatric epilepsies. Pelliccia A, Grassi G, Romano A, Crocchialo P 2005 Cannabidiol Open study Improvement of epilepsy without side effects
Show Pain Standardized cannabis extract in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Ernst G, Denke C, Reif M, Schnelle M, Hagmeister H 2005 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis did not reduce pain
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Friede T, Young CA. 2005 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis is effective in reducing pain and sleep disturbance in patients with multiple sclerosis related central neuropathic pain
Show Nausea/vomiting;HIV/AIDS Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea. de Jong BC, Prentiss D, McFarland W, Machekano R, Israelski DM. 2005 Cannabis Open study Cannabis improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS;Alzheimer’s disease Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV(+) marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood. Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW. 2005 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC and cannabis cause increased caloric intake
Show Appetite loss/weight loss Dronabinol Рeine m̦gliche neue Therapieoption bei COPD-Patienten mit pulmonaler Kachexie [Dronabinol, a possible new therapeutic option in patients with COPD and pulmonal cachexia] Bergmann K-C 2005 Delta-9-THC Open study On average 1,5 kg of weight gain and increase of walking distance
Show Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS;Pain;Anxiety Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. 2005 Cannabis Survey 27% used cannabis for the treatment of various symptoms
Show Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction. D’Souza DC, Abi-Saab WM, Madonick S, Forselius-Bielen K, Doersch A, Braley G, Gueorguieva R, Cooper TB, Krystal JH. 2005 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC is associated with transient exacerbation in core psychotic and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
Show Pain;Depression;Anxiety Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: a questionnaire study. Howard J, Anie KA, Holdcroft A, Korn S, Davies SC. 2005 Cannabis Survey 36% had used cannabis to treat symptoms
Show Dependency/withdrawal Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms. Hermann D, Klages E, Welzel H, Mann K, Croissant B. 2005 Cannabis Survey Only low efficacy of cannabis in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms
Show Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study. Szepietowski JC, Szepietowski T, Reich A. 2005 Other cannabinoids Open study Improvement of pruritus with the cream
Show The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. Ware MA, Adams H, Guy GW. 2005 Cannabis Survey Cannabis use was reported by 25 % of patients with chronic pain and 22 % of patients with multiple sclerosis
Show Clinical improvement and reduction of immunosuppressive drug therapy in cannabis treated patients with crohn’s disease. Hergenrather JY, Mikuriya TH, Bearman D. 2005 Cannabis Survey The majority of patients found a substantial improvement of their symptoms
Show Multiple sclerosis Cannabinoid influence on cytokine profile in multiple sclerosis. Katona S, Kaminski E, Sanders H, Zajicek J. 2005 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study There were no significant effects of cannabinoids on the cytokine profiles examined.
Show Pain Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial. Berman JS, Symonds C, Birch R. 2004 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Significant pain relief and improvement of sleep
Show Parkinson’s disease Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, Liu X, Joint C, Wroath C, Parkin SG, Fox P, Wright D, Hobart J, Zajicek JP. 2004 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis had no treatment effect on levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
Show Parkinson’s disease Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms. Venderova K, Ruzicka E, Vorisek V, Visnovsky P. 2004 Cannabis Survey 25% of the respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial Svendsen KB, Jensen TS, Bach FW 2004 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Significant reduction of pain by THC
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Tremor Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Wade DT, Makela P, Robson P, House H, Bateman C. 2004 Cannabis Controlled study Spasticity scores were significantly reduced by cannabis.
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Vaney C, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Jobin P, Tschopp F, Gattlen B, Hagen U, Schnelle M, Reif M. 2004 Cannabis Controlled study Significant reduction in spasm frequency in the 37 patients who received at least 90% of the dose.
Show Multiple sclerosis An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ. 2004 Cannabis Open study Urinary urgency, the number and volume of incontinence episodes, frequency and nocturia all decreased.
Show Multiple sclerosis;Tremor The effect of cannabis on tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis. Fox P, Bain PG, Glickman S, Carroll C, Zajicek J. 2004 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Other cannabinoids Controlled study No significant improvement of tremor
Show Pain Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain? Attal N, Brasseur L, Guirimand D, Clermond-Gnamien S, Atlami S, Bouhassira D 2004 Delta-9-THC Open study No significant decraese of pain in 7 patients, more than 60% decrease in one patient
Show Dependency/withdrawal Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex. Haney M, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Nasser J, Bennett A, Zubaran C, Foltin RW. 2004 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC abolished withdrawal symptoms
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS;Pain;Depression Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting. Prentiss D, Power R, Balmas G, Tzuang G, Israelski DM. 2004 Cannabis Survey Improvement of pain, appetite and depression/anxiety by using cannabis
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Spasticity;Pain;Depression Survey of cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amtmann D, Weydt P, Johnson KL, Jensen MP, Carter GT. 2004 Cannabis Survey Moderate improvement of pain, spasticity, appetite and depression
Show Pain Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies. Notcutt W, Price M, Miller R, Newport S, Phillips C, Simmons S, Sansom C. 2004 Cannabis Controlled study Improvement of pain
Show Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. 2004 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study THC had sedative effects, CBD had alerting effects
Show Cannabis improves night vision: A pilot study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif Mountains of Northern Morocco. Russo EB, Merzouki A, Molero Mesa J, Frey KA, Bach PJ. 2004 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Oral THC and smoking of cannabis improved night vision
Show Dependency/withdrawal Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol: A Harm-Reduction Approach Mikuriya TH 2004 Cannabis;Nabilone Uncontrolled case report Cannabis is a successful substituent of alcohol
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury;Multiple sclerosis;Pain A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. 2003 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study Pain relief associated with both THC and CBD was significantly superior to placebo. Impaired bladder control, muscle spasms and spasticity were improved by cannabis in some patients
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Alzheimer’s disease Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia: A retrospective chart review Patel S, Shua-Haim JR, Pass M 2003 Delta-9-THC Open study Weight gain in all, reduction of agitation in 65%.
Show HIV/AIDS Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M 2003 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Cannabis and THC had no significant effect on HI virus load and on CD4+ and CD8+ cell count
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury The treatment of spasticity with D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC) in patients with spinal cord injury Hagenbach U, Luz S, Brenneisen R, Mäder M 2003 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Significant reduction of spasticity
Show Spasticity;Dystonia;Epilepsy;Anxiety Experiences with THC-treatment in children and adolescents Lorenz R 2003 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Positive effects of THC in children with severe neurological disorders
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis. Young CA, Rog DJ 2003 Cannabis Controlled study Significant reduction in pain
Show Pain Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial Berman J, Lee J, Cooper M, Cannon A, Sach J, McKerral S, Taggart M, Symonds C, Fishel K, Birch R 2003 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Significant pain relief and improvement of sleep
Show Pain Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Karst M, Salim K, Burstein S, Conrad I, Hoy L, Schneider U. 2003 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Significant reduction of pain
Show Pain Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey. Ware MA, Doyle CR, Woods R, Lynch ME, Clark AJ 2003 Cannabis Survey Cannabis use is prevalent among the chronic non-cancer pain population
Show Alzheimer’s disease Open-label study of dronabinol in the treatment of refractory agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study Ross JS, Shua-Haim JR 2003 Delta-9-THC Open study Significant reduction of agitation
Show HIV/AIDS;Pain The effects of smoked cannabis in painful peripheral neuropathy and cancer pain refractory to opiods. Abrams DI, Jay Ch, Petersen K, Shade S, Vizoso H, Reda H, Benowitz N, Rowbotham M. 2003 Cannabis Open study 10 of the 16 participants experienced a greater than 30% reduction in their pain
Show Tourette’s syndrome Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial. Muller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. 2003 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Results provide evidence that THC is effective in the treatment of tics.
Show Pain Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain. Buggy DJ, Toogood L, Maric S, Sharpe P, Lambert DG, Rowbotham DJ 2003 Delta-9-THC Controlled study 5 mg was ineffective in reduding postoperative pain.
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Zajicek J, Fox P, Sanders H, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Thompson A, on behalf of the UK 2003 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study No effect of cannabinoids on spasticity as measured by the Ashworth scale, while patient-reported spasticity and pain decreased.
Show Pain A case of cannabinoid rotation in a young woman with chronic cystitis Krenn H Daha LK Oczenski W Fitzgerald R D 2003 Delta-9-THC;Nabilone Uncontrolled case report THC reduced pain with low side effects; nabilone caused strong psychic side effects
Show Pain Cannabis reduces opioid dose in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. Lynch ME, Clark AJ. 2003 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Improvement in pain, spasticity, bladder spasm, and sleep.
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Depression Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis. Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC. 2003 Cannabis Survey Improvement of pain, spasticity and anxiety/depression
Show Pain The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions. Naef M, Curatolo M, Petersen-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Zbinden A, Brenneisen R. 2003 Delta-9-THC Controlled study No effect of THC on experimental pain in healthy subjects
Show Survey on the medical use of cannabis and THC in Germany. Grotenhermen F, Schnelle M. 2003 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Survey Cannabis and THC were effective in many conditions
Show Histamine induced responses are attenuated by a cannabinoid receptor agonist in human skin. Dvorak M, Watkinson A, McGlone F, Rukwied R. 2003 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Peripheral administration of HU210 attenuates histamine-induced itch
Show Pain Cannabinoid agonists attenuate capsaicin-induced responses in human skin. Rukwied R, Watkinson A, McGlone F, Dvorak M. 2003 Other cannabinoids Controlled study A topically applied cannabinoid receptor agonist (HU210) reduced pain caused by capsaicin
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Mailliard JA, Pundaleeka S, Kardinal CG, Fitch TR, Krook JE, Novotny PJ, Christensen B. 2002 Delta-9-THC Controlled study megestrol acetate was superior to THC
Show Pain [The therapeutic use of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) in refractory neuropathic pain] [Article in French]. Clermont-Gnamien S, Atlani S, Attal N, Le Mercier F, Guirimand F, Brasseur L. 2002 Delta-9-THC Open study No signficant effect of THC on pain
Show Tourette’s syndrome Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): a randomized crossover trial. Muller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Koblenz A, Jobges M, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. 2002 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Significant improvement of tics and obsessive-compulsive behavior after treatment with THC.
Show Dystonia Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia. Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM 2002 Nabilone Controlled study No significant reduction in dystonia following treatment with nabilone
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS. Killestein J, Hoogervorst EL, Reif M, Kalkers NF, Van Loenen AC, Staats PG, Gorter RW, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH 2002 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study Compared with placebo, neither THC nor plant-extract treatment reduced spasticity.
Show Preliminary observation with dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease. Neff GW, O’Brien CB, Reddy KR, Bergasa NV, Regev A, Molina E, Amaro R, Rodriguez MJ, Chase V, Jeffers L, Schiff E. 2002 Delta-9-THC Open study THC signficantly reduced intractable cholestatic related pruritus
Show Spasticity A casuistic rationale for the treatment of spastic and myocloni in a childhood neurodegenerative disease: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis of the type Jansky-Bielschowsky. Lorenz R. 2002 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Improvement of spasticity
Show Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis E. Russo, M.L. Mathre, A. Byrne, R. Velin, P.J. Bach, J. Sanchez-Ramos, K.A. Kirlin 2002 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Effective treatment of different serious conditions with cannabis
Show Dependency/withdrawal Crack heads and roots daughters: The therapeutic use of cannabis in Jamaica. Dreher M. 2002 Cannabis Open study Cannabis was the most effective and readily available therapy to quit cocaine use
Show Nausea/vomiting Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Clinical Cannabis: To Eat or Not to Eat? Curry W-NL 2002 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis effective in treating nausea and vomiting in pregnant women
Show Cannabis treatments in obstetrics and gynecology: A historical review. Russo E. 2002 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis was effective in a wide range of gynecological conditions
Show Tourette’s syndrome Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Combined treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-THC and dopamine receptor agonists. 2002 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report THC may be combined with neuroleptics
Show Parkinson’s disease Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Hill M, Dick JP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM 2001 Nabilone Controlled study significant reduction of levodopa-induced dyskinesia
Show Nausea/vomiting Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac. Soderpalm AH, Schuster A, de Wit H 2001 Cannabis Controlled study Ondansetron superior to cannabis in reducing nausea and vomiting
Show Spinal cord injury Clinical investigation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an alternative therapy for overactive bladders in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Hagenbach U, Ghafoor N, Brenneisen R, Luz S, Mäder M. 2001 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Significant improvement of some parameters of bladder function
Show Multiple sclerosis Acute and chronic effects of cannabis based medicinal extract on refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis – early results Brady CM, DasGupta R, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ 2001 Cannabis Open study Mean maximum cystometric capacity increased
Show Pain [Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain] [Article in German] Elsner F, Radbruch L, Sabatowski R. 2001 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Sufficient pain relief in three patients
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials. Musty RE, Rossi R. 2001 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Open study Cannabis caused symptom relief in 70-100%, dronabinol caused symptom relief in 76-88%
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Spasticity;Pain Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Carter GT, Rosen BS. 2001 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis relieved several symptoms of ALS
Show HIV/AIDS Differential Effects of Medical Marijuana Based on Strain and Route of Administration: A Three-Year Observational Study Corral VL 2001 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report
Show Hemp for headache: An in-depth historical and scientific review of cannabis in migraine treatment. Russo EB 2001 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis may be effective in the treatment of headache
Show Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Marijuana Use in HIV-Positive and AIDS Patients: Results of an Anonymous Mail Survey Sidney S. 2001 Cannabis Survey 22.4 % used cannabis for medicinal purposes
Show Pain Antinociceptive, subjective and behavioral effects of smoked marijuana in humans. Greenwald MK, Stitzer ML. 2000 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis produced dose-dependent antinociception
Show Multiple sclerosis Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicine (CBM, Stativex®) to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Kavia R, De Ridder D, Sarantis N, Constantinescu C, Fowler. 2000 Cannabis Controlled study There was no effect on daily incontinence, but the cannabis extract was superior to placebo for nocturia.
Show Tourette’s syndrome Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Muller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Kolbe H, Emrich HM. 1999 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report Improvement of tics and obsessive-compulsive behavior
Show Multiple sclerosis;Pain Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors. Hamann W, di Vadi PP. 1999 Nabilone Open study Relieve of pain
Show Dependency/withdrawal Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil. Labigalini E Jr, Rodrigues LR, Da Silveira DX. 1999 Cannabis Open study Cannabis use helped patients to quit crack use by reducing the craving symptoms
Show Dependency/withdrawal Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil. Labigalini E, Jr., Rodrigues LR, Da Silveira DX. 1999 Cannabis Open study Cannabis reduced craving and helped patients to quit cocaine
Show Bipolar disorders The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research. Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. 1998 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report A number of patients find cannabis (marihuana) useful in the treatment of their bipolar disorder
Show Tourette’s syndrome Cannabinoids: possible role in patho-physiology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Muller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich HM. 1998 Cannabis Survey Evidence that marijuana improves tics and behavioural disorders in TS.
Show Parkinson’s disease The effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Dick J, Brotchie JM. 1998 Nabilone Controlled study Activation of cannabinoid receptors can reduce L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in man without aggravating parkinsonism.
Show Hiccups Marijuana for intractable hiccups. Gilson I, Busalacchi M. 1998 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Smoking cannabis stopped hiccups that did not respond to usual medications on the 8th day
Show Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Tremor;Depression The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R 1997 Cannabis Survey In more than 80% improvement of spasticity, pain, tremor, depression, anxiety, and paresthesia
Show Pain Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever. Holdcroft A, Smith M, Jacklin A, Hodgson H, Smith B, Newton M, Evans F 1997 Cannabis Controlled study reduction of need for morphin
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol). Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D 1997 Delta-9-THC Uncontrolled case report patients was treated with several antiemetic drugs, but it was not until dronabinol was added that the nausea and vomiting stopped
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia. Beal JE, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, Morales JO, Murphy R, Powderly W, Plasse TF, Mosdell KW, Shepard KV 1997 Delta-9-THC Open study tendency to stable weight for 7 months
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. The DATRI 004 Study Group. Division of AIDS Treatment Research Initiative. Timpone JG, Wright DJ, Li N, Egorin MJ, Enama ME, Mayers J, Galetto G 1997 Delta-9-THC Controlled study weight loss with THC, weight gain with megestrol acetate
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Alzheimer’s disease Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ 1997 Delta-9-THC Controlled study higher weight gain with THC; reduction of disturbed behaviour with THC
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer chemotherapy Marijuana to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer patients: a survey of clinical oncologists. Schwartz RH, Voth EA, Sheridan MJ. 1997 Cannabis Survey Only a small percentage of oncologists prescribed marijuana
Show Multiple sclerosis; Spinal cord injury; Spasticity; Pain The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y 1996 Delta-9-THC improvement of joint function and ability to walk; in 1 patient additional alleviation of pain
Show Cancer chemotherapy; Nausea/vomiting An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Abrahamov A, Abrahamov A, Mechoulam R 1995 Delta-9-THC Open study complete prevention of emesis
Show Multiple sclerosis; Spasticity Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J 1995 Nabilone Controlled study improvement of muscle spasms and frequency of nocturia
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS;Depression Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Beal JE, Olson R, Laubenstein L, Morales JO, Bellman P, Yangco B, Lefkowitz L, Plasse TF, Shepard KV 1995 Delta-9-THC Controlled study increased appetite; improvement in mood; stabel weight
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. Kogel RW, Johnson PB, Chintam R, Robinson CJ, Nemchausky BA. 1995 Delta-9-THC Open study Spasticity was markedly improved in 2 o 5 patients
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia. Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, Sheehan F 1994 Delta-9-THC Open study increase of appetite in 13 patients
Show Multiple sclerosis Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers Greenberg HS, Werness SAS, Pugh JE, Andrus RO, Anderson DJ, Domino EF 1994 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis reduced posture and balance in patients with MS
Show Nausea/vomiting Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy. Lewis IH, Campbell DN, Barrowcliffe MP. 1994 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone and metoclopramide were equally effective in reducing nausea and vomiting
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection. Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ, Pavia AT, Plasse TF, Shepard KV, Ries K, Evans TG. 1993 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Trends toward weight gain, improved appetite, decreased symptom stress
Show Tourette’s syndrome Effective treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with marijuana. Hemming M, Yellowlees PM. 1993 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Improvement of symptoms with cannabis
Show HIV/AIDS; Appetite loss/weight loss; Depression Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients. Plasse T, Conant M, Gorter R, Shepard KV 1992 Delta-9-THC Controlled study increase in appetite, trend toward weight gain
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection. Gorter R, Seefried M, Volberding P 1992 Delta-9-THC Open study weight gain
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J 1991 Delta-9-THC Controlled study prochlorperazine better than THC, both drugs combined better than both alone
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG 1991 Delta-9-THC Open study Significant weight gain
Show Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease. Consroe P, Laguna J, Allender J, Snider S, Stern L, Sandyk R, Kennedy K, Schram K 1991 Cannabidiol Controlled study CBD was neither symptomatically effective nor toxic.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer chemotherapy Marijuana as antiemetic medicine: a survey of oncologists’ experiences and attitudes. Doblin RE, Kleiman MA. 1991 Cannabis Survey 54% of oncologists thought marijuana should be available on prescription
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury;Pain Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A 1990 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC and codeine reduced pain; THC reduced spasticity
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients. Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T 1990 Delta-9-THC Open study Patients continued to loose, but the weight loss decreased in all groups; appetite and mood increased
Show Parkinson’s disease Marijuana for parkinsonian tremor. Frankel JP, Hughes A, Lees AJ, Stern GM. 1990 Cannabis Open study No improvement of tremor
Show Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients. Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T. 1990 Delta-9-THC Open study Dronabinol stimulated mood and appetite
Show Multiple sclerosis; Spasticity; Ataxia Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. Meinck HM, Schönle PW, Conrad B 1989 Cannabis Controlled study improvement of tremor, spasticity and ataxia
Show Nausea/vomiting;HIV/AIDS Nabilone as effective therapy for intractable nausea and vomiting in AIDS. Green ST, Nathwani D, Goldberg DJ, Kennedy DH. 1989 Nabilone Uncontrolled case report Intractable nausea and vomiting was effectively relieved with nabilone
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R 1988 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC decreased nausea and vomiting in 23 of 36 (64%) patients
Show Appetite loss/weight loss Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF. 1988 Cannabis Controlled study Increases in body weight during periods of active marijuana smoking were greater than predicted by caloric intake alone.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues. Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, Harding M, Kerr DJ, Soukop M, Kaye SB. 1988 Nabilone Open study Metoclopramide/dexamethasone superior to nabilone/prochlorperazine
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. Vinciguerra V, Moore T, Brennan E. 1988 Cannabis Open study Marijuana effective as antiemetic agent
Show Tourette’s syndrome Marijuana and Tourette’s syndrome. Sandyk R, Awerbuch G. 1988 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report The patients notes a significant amelioration of symptoms when smoking cannabis
Show Multiple sclerosis; Spasticity Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW 1987 Delta-9-THC Controlled study significant subjective improvement in spasticity at doses of 7.5 mg and above; no objective improvement
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial. Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM 1987 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone effective as antiemetic drug for children
Show Nausea/vomiting A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea. Priestman SG, Priestman TJ, Canney PA. 1987 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone similar effective as metoclopramide
Show Pain Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia. Lindstrom P, Lindblom U, Boreus L. 1987 Cannabidiol Controlled study no effect of CBD on pain
Show Dystonia; Parkinson’s disease Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR 1986 Cannabidiol Open study 20-50% improvement of dystonia; deterioration of tremor and hypokinesia in 2 patients with Parkinson’s disease
Show Epilepsy Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol. Ames FR, Cridland S 1986 Cannabidiol Controlled study no significant effect in addition to standard medication
Show Spasticity Effect of Delta-9-THC on EMG Measurements in Human Spasticity Truong XT, Hanigan WC 1986 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC reduced several types of spastic manifestations
Show Appetite loss/weight loss Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Foltin RW, Fishman MW, Brady JV. 1986 Cannabis Controlled study The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study. Crawford SM, Buckman R. 1986 Nabilone Controlled study No difference between nabilone and metoclopramide
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS. 1986 Nabilone Controlled study Even for young children nabilone is an effective antiemetic, superior to domperidone.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy. Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG. 1986 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone superior to alizapride.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis. Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M. 1986 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone superior to domperidone
Show Dystonia Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Sandyk R, Snider SR, Consroe P, Elias SM. 1986 Cannabidiol Uncontrolled case report Cannabidiol (CBD) reduced dystonic movements
Show Spasticity The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity. Hanigan WC, Destree R, Truong XT. 1986 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Delta-9-THC proved clinically beneficial in two of five patients with intractable spasticity.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference. Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K. 1985 Delta-9-THC Controlled study nausea reduction was the main determinant of preference between THC and prochlorperazine
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy A cross-over comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. Niiranen A, Mattson K. 1985 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone is a moderately effective anti-emetic drug
Show Parkinson’s disease Beneficial and adverse effects of cannabidiol in a Parkinson patient with sinemet-induced dystonic dyskinesia. Snider SR, Consroe P. 1985 Cannabidiol Uncontrolled case report Improvement of dyskinesia
Show Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Citron ML, Herman TS, Vreeland F, Krasnow SH, Fossieck BE Jr, Harwood S, Franklin R, Cohen MH. 1985 Delta-9-THC;Other cannabinoids Controlled study Levonantradol appears to be at least as effective an antiemetic as THC ; well-tolerated side-effects.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG, Kalman LB, Groshen S 1984 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Poorer antiemetic control and more side effects with dronabinol than with the metoclopramide, both better than placebo
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A 1984 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC Controlled study 9 patients no preference; 7 preferred oral THC, 4 preferred marijuana cigarettes (double-blind, double dummy crossover study)
Show Asthma Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids. Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Simmons MS, Calvarese B, Shapiro BJ 1984 Delta-9-THC Open study acute bronchodilator activity of delta 9-THC; no effect of cannabidiol; daily use of delta 9-THC not associated with tolerance
Show Dystonia Treatment of Meige’s syndrome with cannabidiol. Snider S.R, Consroe P. 1984 Cannabidiol Uncontrolled case report 50% improvement in spasm severity and frequency
Show Cancer chemotherapy Dose ranging evaluation of the antiemetic efficacy and toxicity of intramuscular levonantradol in cancer subjects with chemotherapy-induced emesis. Stambaugh JE Jr, McAdams J, Vreeland F. 1984 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Levonantradol more effective than placebo
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer An initial evaluation of Nabilone in the control of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Priestman TJ, Priestman SG. 1984 Nabilone Open study Patients who did not respond to metaclopramide responded to nabilone.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy. Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak TA, Fairbanks LA, Tesler AS, Parker RG. 1984 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC was slightly superior to prochlorperazine
Show Multiple sclerosis; Tremor Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Clifford DB 1983 Delta-9-THC Controlled study 2 patients with objective improvement, 5 with subjective improvement
Show Asthma Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B 1983 Nabilone Controlled study moderate bronchodilator action in healthy subjects; no difference to placebo in asthmatics
Show Appetite loss/weight loss A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa. Gross H, Ebert MH, Faden VB, Goldberg SC, Kaye WH, Caine ED, Hawks R, Zinberg N 1983 Delta-9-THC Controlled study no significant difference between THC and diazepam
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy. Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Calder IT, Moran F. 1983 Nabilone Controlled study Symptom scores were significantly better for patients on nabilone for nausea, retching and vomiting.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy [Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin][Article in French] George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP. 1983 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone, in comparison with chlorpromazine did not significantly reduce the number of vomiting, but most patients preferred nabilone.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with chlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, Stuart F, Sangster G, Kaye S, Charlton D, et al. 1983 Other cannabinoids Controlled study 0.5 mg levonantradol was a more effective antiemtic than 25 mg chlorpromazine
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer chemotherapy Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy: a comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak T, Fairbanks L, Goodnight J, Sarna G, Jamison K. 1982 Delta-9-THC Controlled study No significant differences between THC and prochlorperazine
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Malec J, Harvey RF, Cayner JJ. 1982 Cannabis Survey Decreased spasticity with marijuana use
Show Nausea/vomiting Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting. Lucraft HH, Palmer MK 1982 Other cannabinoids Controlled study The frequency of vomiting was similar after levonantradol and chlorpromazine.
Show Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs. prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. Johansson R, Kilkku P, Groenroos M. 1982 Nabilone Controlled study Severity of nausea and number of vomiting ejections and dry retching episodes were significantly less under nabilone.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy A multi-institutional Phase III study of nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A. 1982 Nabilone Controlled study Nabilone is an effective antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Show Spasticity Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Petro DJ, Ellenberger C Jr 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study reduced spasticity with 10 mg THC
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy. Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study no significant reduction of the number of vomiting, volume of emesis, degree of nausea, or duration of nausea
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics. Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC 15 mg was the most effective against vomiting, prochlorperazine was the most effective antinauseant
Show Pain Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain. Jain AK, Ryan JR, McMahon FG, Smith G. 1981 Other cannabinoids Controlled study significant pain relief compared with placebo
Show Glaucoma Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma. Merritt JC, Perry DD, Russell DN, Jones BF 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study no effect
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC and haloperidol equally effective
Show Cancer chemotherapy;Glaucoma Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications. Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study Patients were remarkably free of adverse physiologic effects.
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD. 1981 Nabilone Controlled study Sixty patients (75 per cent) reported nabilone to be more effective than prochlorperazine for relief of nausea and vomiting.
Show Pain A study of levonantradol, a cannabinol derivative, for analgesia in post operative pain. Kantor TG, Hopper M. 1981 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Levonantradol has analgetic activity but may have central nervous system adverse effects in humans.
Show Glaucoma Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Herning RI. 1981 Delta-9-THC Controlled study
Show Anxiety The efficacy and safety of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) in the treatment of anxiety. Fabre LF, McLendon D. 1981 Nabilone Controlled study Dramatic improvement in anxiety
Show Anxiety Single-dose study of nabilone in anxious volunteers. Glass RM, Uhlenhuth EH, Hartel FW, Schuster CR, Fischman MW. 1981 Nabilone Controlled study Antianxiety effects in 2 of the 8 subjects
Show Pain Effects of moderate and high doses of marihuana on thermal pain: a sensory decision theory analysis. Clark WC, Janal MN, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG. 1981 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis increased perseption of pain
Show Cancer chemotherapy; Nausea/vomiting Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine. Sallan SE, Cronin C, Zelen M, Zinberg NE 1980 Delta-9-THC Controlled study no nausea and vomiting in 36 of 79 courses of chemotherapy with THC compared to 16 of 78 courses in patients who received prochlorperazine; improved appetite with THC
Show Cancer chemotherapy; Nausea/vomiting Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis. Orr LE, McKernan JF, Bloome B 1980 Delta-9-THC Controlled study no nausea and no vomiting (complete response) in 73% (40/55 courses) in THC group
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG. 1980 Delta-9-THC Controlled study tetrahydrocannabinol given by mouth has an antiemetic effect of approximately the same order as thiethylperazine and metoclopramide
Show Epilepsy Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R 1980 Cannabidiol Controlled study 4 of the 8 CBD subjects remained almost free of convulsive crises and 3 other patients demonstrated partial improvement
Show Spasticity;Pain Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Petro DJ 1980 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Relief from spasticity and pain
Show Glaucoma Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma. Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS 1980 Cannabis Controlled study Marihuana inhalation decreased intraocular and blood pressure.
Show Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Double-blind comparison of the antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis. Steele N, Gralla RJ, Braun DW Jr, Young CW. 1980 Nabilone Controlled study Both nabilone and prochlorperazine produced antiemetic effects
Show Epilepsy Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R 1980 Cannabidiol Controlled study 4 of the 8 CBD subjects remained almost free of convulsive crises and 3 other patients demonstrated partial improvement
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo. Frytak S, Moertel CG, O’Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O’Connell MJ, Schutt AJ, Schwartau NW 1979 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC and PCP equally effective; both better than placebo; THC produced psychic effects in 82%
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation. Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Simon RM, Rosenberg SA. 1979 Delta-9-THC Controlled study 14 of 15 patients had decreased vomiting and nausea
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA 1979 Delta-9-THC Controlled study dronabinol superior to placebo (P<.01 for difference between groups at days 1 and 8 independently)
Show Glaucoma Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension. Crawford WJ, Merritt JC 1979 Cannabis Controlled study drop in IOP parallel with drop in arterial blood pressure
Show Nausea/vomiting Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk IH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P 1979 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting but not in all patients
Show Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, Furnas B, Williams SD, Leigh SA, Dorr RT, Moon TE. 1979 Nabilone Controlled study When both drugs were compared, both nausea and vomiting episodes were significantly lower in patients given nabilone.
Show Pain Effect of benzopyranoperidine, a delta-9-THC congener, on pain. Jochimsen PR, Lawton RL, VerSteeg K, Noyes Jr R 1978 Other cannabinoids Controlled study Bezopyranoperidine was not more effective than placebo
Show Cancer;Pain Effect of a nitrogen analog of tetrahydrocannabinol on cancer pain. Staquet M, Gantt C, Machin D. 1978 Other cannabinoids Controlled study NIB was superior to placebo and to secobarbital but is not useful clinically because of the frequency of side effects.
Show Glaucoma Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on intraocular pressure in humans. Cooler P, Gregg JM 1977 Delta-9-THC Controlled study reduction in intraocular pressure
Show Pain Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response. Raft D, Gregg J, Ghia J, Harris L 1977 Delta-9-THC Controlled study No pain relief with THC
Show Asthma Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. 1977 Delta-9-THC Controlled study THC effective in healthy subjects and 3 asthmatic subjects; aerosol caused bronchoconstriction in 2 asthmatic subjects
Show Cancer; Appetite loss/weight loss; Depression Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO 1976 Delta-9-THC Controlled study weight gain with THC; weight los with placebo
Show Asthma Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients. Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD 1976 Delta-9-THC Controlled study significant broncholdilation with THC; faster action of salbutamol but both drugs equivalent at 1 hour
Show Cancer chemotherapy; Nausea/vomiting Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Sallan SE, Zinberg NE, Frei E 3d 1975 Delta-9-THC Controlled study for patients completing the study there were 5 complete responses (no vomiting) and 7 partial responses (50% decrease of vomiting) of overall 15 courses
Show Cancer; Pain Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Noyes R Jr, Brunk SF, Baram DA, Canter A 1975 Delta-9-THC Controlled study pain relief with 15-20 mg THC
Show Cancer; Pain The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Noyes R Jr, Brunk SF, Avery DAH, Canter AC 1975 Delta-9-THC Controlled study milde analgesic effect; with 20 mg THC strong adverse effects
Show Epilepsy Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking. Consroe PF, Wood GC, Buchsbaum H 1975 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Cannabis was able to control seizures in conjunction with phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin.
Show Asthma Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma. Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE 1975 Cannabis Controlled study after experimental induction of acute bronchospasm prompt correction of the bronchospasm with cannabis
Show Glaucoma Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon? Flom MC, Adams AJ, Jones RT 1975 Delta-9-THC Open study IOP reduction in 7 of 15
Show Asthma Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. 1974 Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol Controlled study Smoked marijuana and oral THC caused significant bronchodilation of at least 2 hours duration.
Show Spasticity;Spinal cord injury;Pain The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Dunn M, Davis R. 1974 Cannabis Survey Decrease in pain and spasticity.
Show Pain Marihuana and pain. Hill SY, Schwin R, Goodwin DW, Powell B. 1974 Cannabis Controlled study Cannabis increased pain sensitivity
Show Glaucoma Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure. Hepler RS, Frank IR 1971 Cannabis Open study 9 of 11 had drop in intraocular pressure of 16-45%
Show Dependency/withdrawal Cannabis substitution. An adjunctive therapeutic tool in the treatment of alcoholism. Mikuriya TH 1970 Cannabis Uncontrolled case report Marijuana consumption may help to decrease alcolholic intake.


I was researching hemp based graphene, trying to find diagrams of the molecular structure of hemp bast after hearing it can out perform pure carbon graphene, when I came across this beautiful illustration from a nice dissertation from Helsinki on the microscopic structure of hemp bast fibres that I wanted to share…

Structures of flax and hemp stems

Structures of flax and hemp stems

Read the full PDF by Minna Nykter here:


University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006

PDF: Microbial quality of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) from plants to thermal insulation

Minna Nykter

Doctoral dissertation, June 2006.
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agrotechnology.
ISBN 952-10-3208-1


Microbial quality of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) from plants to thermal insulation

Minna Nykter

Doctoral dissertation, June 2006.
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agrotechnology.

Flax and hemp have traditionally been used mainly for textiles, but recently interest has also been focused on non-textile applications. Microbial quality throughout the whole processing chain of bast fibres has not previously been studied. This study concentrates on the microbial quality and possible microbial risks in the production chain of hemp and flax fibres and fibrous thermal insulations. In order to be able to utilize hemp and flax fibres, the bast fibres must be separated from the rest of the plant. Non-cellulosic components can be removed with various pretreatment processes, which are associated with a certain risk of microbial contamination. In this study enzymatic retting and steam explosion (STEX) were examined as pretreatment processes.

On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the microbial contents on stalks of both plants studied increased at the end of the growing season and during the winter. However, by processing and mechanical separation it is possible to produce fibres containing less moulds and bacteria than the whole stem. Enzymatic treatment encouraged the growth of moulds in fibres. Steam explosion reduced the amount of moulds in fibres. Dry thermal treatment used in this study did not markedly reduce the amount of microbes.

In this project an emission measurement chamber was developed which was suitable for measurements of emissions from both mat type and loose fill type insulations, and capable of interdisciplinary sampling. In this study, the highest amounts of fungal emissions were in the range of 103-105 cfu/m3 from the flax and hemp insulations at 90% RH of air. The fungal emissions from stone wool, glass wool and recycled paper insulations were below 102 cfu/m3even at 90% RH. Equally low values were obtained from bast fibrous materials in lower humidities (at 30% and 80% RH of air). After drying of moulded insulations at 30% RH, the amounts of emitted moulds were in all cases higher compared to the emissions at 90% RH before drying.

The most common fungi in bast fibres were Penicillium andRhizopus. The widest variety of different fungi was in the untreated hemp and linseed fibres and in the commercial loose-fill flax insulation. Penicillium, Rhizopus and Paecilomyces were the most tolerant to steam explosion. According to the literature, the most common fungi in building materials and indoor air are Penicillium,Aspergillus and Cladosporium, which were all found in some of the bast fibre materials in this study.

As organic materials, hemp and flax fibres contain high levels of nutrients for microbial growth. The amount of microbes can be controlled and somewhat decreased by the processing methods presented.

The title page of the publication

This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.

© University of Helsinki 2006

Last updated 07.06.2006

elementary fibre cross section

elementary fibre cross section




See also on Legalise NZ:

Superconductivity Explained via Hemp Cellulosic Graphene

An Italian team of scientists have discovered evidence of potential brain growth stimulatory effects on rat brain extracts in vitro. I say potential because its in a test tube and it’s also from rats brains.

Specifically, [CBC] cannabichromene appeared to increase the viability of developing brain cells – known to scientists as adult neural stem progenitor cells (NSPC).



CBC Molecular Structure.

CBC Molecular Structure.

I was curious to check exactly how safe is cannabis?

For a kiwi woman, 92 grams of pure THC would likely kill 50% of them. But that’s like 20,000 joints in 15 minutes; and likely based on intravenous injection of pure THC into monkeys.

It’s Non-Toxic and Prevents Bladder Cancer

It turns out Marijuana is non-toxic and very safe to consume with a vapouriser. Smoking anything is dangerous, unhealthy and to be avoided, but non-combustive forms of consumption actually  reduce incidence of bladder cancer by 45%.

Don’t ask me check the NIH study that involves 84,000 men aged between 45 and 69. It showed that of the 34,000 cannabis-only users, only 89 developed bladder cancer during the 11 year study (less than 0.3% incidence), which was statistically significantly less than the 190 men (0.4%) who did not report cannabis use. See:

89 people with cancer versus 190 with cancer. Pretty clear numbers.

That’s insane in the membrane and a fairly major discovery!

I decided to check if it is non-toxic and it appears to be so far if you check the LD50 level of THC. This is the level at which 50% of subject perish from the lethal dose. to get the THC needed to maybe kill you, you would need to consume 1500 pounds of ganga in 15 minutes in order to get the toxic effect.

Mind = Blown!!!!!

Also the old study that showed toxicity was when they strapped gas masks on the animals and suffocated them to death, that’s plain cruel.

Some Example Lethal Dose Numbers For Comparison

The average New Zealand female over the age of 15 weighs 72.6kg so I’ll put the lethal dosage for this weight in brackets at the end of each line.

  • Oral LD50 of grain alcohol: 10.6 g/kg in young rats, 7.06 g/kg in aged rats
    • 769 grams of alcohol is equal to 1.9 litres of 40% spirits
  • Oral LD50 of nicotine: 50 mg/kg in rats
    • 3.6 grams of nicotine or 300 cigarettes @ 12mg per cig
  • Oral LD50 of Table Salt: 3 g/kg in rats
    • 217 grams
  • LD50 of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (active ingredient found in Cannabis): Fischer rat, oral 1,270 mg/kg 1.270
    • 92 grams of what would need to be essentially pure THC for example hash oil
    • That would likely cost between $4k-$10k worth of product I reckon
  • LD50 of smoked and inhaled Cannabis or Marijuana: unknown, at present it is estimated that marijuana’s LD-50 is around 20,000 to 40,000 joints
  • LD50 of batrachotoxin: estimated at 1 to 2 µg/kg in humans
  • LD50 of Polonium 210: estimated at 10 (inhaled) to 50 (ingested) nanograms in humans makes this one of the most toxic substances known. One gram in theory could poison 100 million people of which 50 million would die.

Tor is a darknet that bounces traffic around the globe via many different machines in different countries in order to hide the users true IP address. This enables one to safely and anonymously browse the web without fear of tracking. You can see the amount of users logged into Tor over the past 2 years peaked at around 800,000 users!

Tor Users Past 2 Years

Tor Users Past 2 Years


Here are some download links to the software on various platforms:

Mac/Windows/Linux: TorBrowser

iOS/iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch: Onion Browser

Android: Orbot and Orweb both together.

Load this very webpage in your phone now: