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Maybe I was stoned and missed it, but a momentus event occurred in April!
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Based on an article by Cheryl Hoard
In 1978 the German government established a committee, called Commission E, comprised of physicians, pharmacologists, toxicologists, representatives of the pharmaceutical industry and lay persons. Phytomedicines, simply called herbal remedies, are commonly used and very popular in Germany. The German government saw the need to create a process to affirm their safety and effectiveness. The Commission E evaluated data obtained from clinical trials, field studies, collections of single cases, scientific literature including facts published in the standard reference works and expertise of medical associations. Their evaluations resulted in the establishment of “reasonable certainty” of the safety and effectiveness of the herb reviewed.
In the USA the FDA requires “absolute certainty” for all drugs. Some procedures in use today, like angioplasty and bypass surgery are not supported by evidence and were used long before proper clinical trials were done. Often conventional medicine uses methods more productive of harm – so it must be held to stricter standards. The FDA classifies herbs as untested dietary supplements in which no direct claims can be made for their use for certain conditions. The American public is left on its own to determine what is safe and effective. Many herb leaders who were involved in the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels (CDSL) 1997 report to President Clinton presented documentation that herbs were successfully regulated as medicines in leading European nations, particularly Germany. In the words of Dr. Varro Tyler, “The German experience has definitely shown that reasonable certainty of safety and efficacy is adequate for long-used remedies.” Dr. Tyler, Dean and Distinguished Professor of Pharmacognosy Emeritus School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, was one of the first American authors to report on scientific herbal information. His books are now widely read by the American public and were some of the first herb books currently used by doctors in the USA.
There are 380 monographs presented in the American Botanical Council’s The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. This material has been translated into English. The monographs include listings of approved herbs, unapproved herbs, uses and indications, contraindications, side effects, interactions of herbs with conventional drugs, duration of administration and more.
The German market is the largest with 10 percent of pharmaceutical sales being natural remedies. The French market is the second largest with both countries experiencing positive attitudes towards herbal medicine by the medical profession, government and pharmacies. In Germany a large proportion of herbs are sold on prescription.
Sales through health food stores are predominant compared to other outlets like supermarkets and drug discount stores. Although in the more developed markets of France and Germany, most herbal sales are through pharmacies. New legislation in France actually restricts the sale of licensed herbal products to pharmacies. Generally though, European countries allow herbal remedies to be sold only in places that provide some kind of advisory service to consumers.
Some countries like Germany and France have created a system of monographs that establish a plant’s safety and efficacy. Manufacturers only have to provide proof of a product’s quality. Products containing herbs not covered by existing monographs require clinical and toxicological support as vigorous as drug approval here in the USA. Interestingly, the UK is not producing any monographs and the British herbal market has been restricted by negative attitudes of the medical profession, government and pharmacies. Their herbal sales equal 2 percent of the UK’s total pharmaceutical market.
Although the English translation is in book form, the monographs were originally intended to be package insert information. The German Commission E Monographs have been described as the most accurate scientific information available in the entire world on the safety and efficacy of herbs.
Based on text from Cheryl’s Herbs
The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Edited by Blumenthal, Busse, Goldberg, Gruenwald, Hall, Klein, Riggins & Rister. Published by The American Botanical Council 1998 in cooperation with Integrative Medicine Communications. Austin, Texas
Article by Susan Goodman. Modern Maturity (AARP). January-February 2000.
Shown below are prison population graphs from Corrections NZ showing daily prison muster numbers, taken from pages such as the December 2015 summary. My OIA Request 429890 seeks to obtain very fine-grained database access to the full set of Corrections anonymised database tables for the past 10 years, including one-way salted hashes of prisoners CRI/CRN numbers to provide protection for privacy respect to the privacy act), including columns or fields for “gang” / religion / tattoos or whatever you have, I will be able to plot on a daily chart the numbers similar to how Corrections has itself done on the website.
To illustrate I have collected a series of graphs taken from the December summary pages…
2008 to 2011:
2010 to 2013:
2011 to 2014:
2013 to 2015:
2014 to 2018 (predicted):